The procedure for a mastectomy

When one is about to undergo the procedure for a mastectomy the patient will be put under a general anesthetic. The patient will then fall completely asleep and the plastic surgeons can go about their work without the fear of causing pain in the patient. Then the plastic surgeon will begin to perform the actual removal; there are several different variants and the type used depends on many different factors. They are: Subcutaneous Mastectomy, Total Mastectomy, Modified Radical Mastectomy and Radical Mastectomy. The first type, or subcutaneous removal process is used on patients that need to have the entire breast removed. However, the nipples and dark area around them is left. Next, the Total Mastectomy removes the entire breast, including the nipple, down to the muscle and is generally the procedure used when removing both breasts. A Modded radical procedure entails that the entire breast be removed as well as the lymph nods underneath the arms of the patient if they have been infected. Lastly, there is the radical mastectomy plastic surgery procedure which entails that the patient’s skin covering the breast is removed but not the breast itself, the lymph nods will also be taken out. This is least common type of breast reconstruction procedure. All of the above cosmetic surgery procedures entails many risks and can not be performed on everyone.

Fly Fishing California Saltwater

Fly fishing ocean waters in California has not caught on as much as it has for some other parts of the world. This may be because there aren’t broad expanses of shallow flats, like you might find in the Caribbean or Eastern US, but California saltwater is definitely fly fishable, as many an enthusiast has come to discover. A variety of species, both native and pelagic can be induced to hit a fly.

The California underwater seascape, like the landscape is filled with deep canyons, large mountainous sub sea banks and rocky reefs. Obviously only the shallower areas can be fished, or the deeper areas for surface dwelling fish. Actually I used to tie flies and fish them deep back when deep-water rock cod fishing was legal.

The first general category of fish that can be fly fished are the reef dwelling ambush feeders. The king of these is the calico bass. This is a common, popular sportfish that is relatively easy to catch and is excellent eating. Calicos live near or in structure, whether rocky outcroppings, man-made seawalls, or the kelp forests. They eat small baitfish and hunt by waiting for prey to come by, then making a quick dash and gulp. Sand bass, living on the bottom near structure, Sheephead, a kind of wrasse, and ocean whitefish, are a few other types of reef dwelling ambush feeders that share that habitat with Calicos and may be incidentally caught when fishing for calicos.

Fly-fishing for calico bass required fairly heavy tackle because of their habitat, near structure. You will get caught in rocks or kelp occasionally. An 8 weight fly rod should be considered minimum, and a 9 or 10 weight preferred. Saltwater reels with built-in adjustable drags are important. You can’t simply “palm” most ocean fish, and the possibility that your hooked fish will get taken by a shark or seal always exists. Trust me, you don’t want to be palming a spool when a 1200 lb. California sea lion snatches up your catch and takes off. Sinking fly lines are a must and most fishermen use shooting heads.

Reef dwelling ambush feeders usually take baitfish imitating streamer flies the best. Lefty’s deceivers and Clouser minnows are the standard, in blue and white to imitate anchovies, or green and white to look like sardines. These can be quite large, three or four inches isn’t too big. Squid imitating flies also can produce quite well, especially during the winter months when the squid runs are on in California.

To fish for these species, you need to get as close to the structure as you dare, and present a nervous, twitchy action to the fly. This will stimulate their strike instinct and they pounce on your presentation.

In the summer months, the Southern California coast often has runs of what are called surface fish. These species, the Yellowtail, Bonito and Barracuda feed an entirely different way than reef dwellers. These are fast, powerful fish of the open water that use their blazing speed to chase down their prey. Baitfish gather in huge schools that these surface fish slash through gorging themselves.

Schools of bait are fairly easy to spot. They attract sea birds that gather in great flocks frenziedly diving and gorging themselves on the feast of fish. Underneath are the predatory fish and above are the predatory birds, and so the baitfish have nowhere to go except into the maws of the predators. Fish the edges of these bait schools for best results.

Again, anchovy or sardine imitating streamer flies are the ticket, but the method of fishing them is different. Long ripping, high-speed retrieves will produce better than slow twitchy ones, as these fish are used to chasing down fleeing prey. A 10 to 12 weight fly rod is appropriate for these species, and adjustable drags are a must. Again, shooting head, sinking lines make the most sense when surface fishing.

These techniques can also be used for the offshore species like Albacore, Yellowfin Tuna and Dorado (dolphin fish) in the seasons when these are running. A 12 weight should be considered minimum for these species as they are very fast and powerful.

Federal Funding to Keep The Great Lakes Great

The U.S. President, Barack Obama, began to make good on a campaign promise calling for a $5 billion (US), 10 year program aimed at restoration of the Great Lakes. This summer, the President delivered his request for funding to the U.S. Department of the Interior and in that document the President requested a boost in spending of approximately $475 million in FY 2010 targeting Great Lakes cleanup and restoration efforts. The additional funding adds to the roughly $500 million that Congress routinely appropriates each year. In total, the President’s request would mean nearly $1 billion for the effort. At the time that this article was written, both the House and the Senate have passed their versions of the FY 2010 Interior appropriations bill and the House has passed the conference committee version which marries the two original bills into one. The Senate is expected to take up the conference committee version in the coming weeks and it is widely expected to pass. In addition to simply adding money to the coffers, President Obama has also appointed a “Great Lakes Czar” to oversee cleanup and restoration efforts. The President named Cameron Davis, president of the Chicago-based Alliance for the Great Lakes, to coordinate federal programs on the lakes, including efforts to clean up contaminated sediments, reduce existing pollution sources and stanch the onslaught of invasive species in recent decades. Upon hearing of Mr. Davis’ assignment to the position, Jack Bails, the Chairman of the Alliance, stated that “Cameron Davis’ work at the Alliance during the last 23 years has helped put the Great Lakes on the national radar – not only with the new administration and Congress, but with states, cities and countless citizens. His passion and commitment to the Great Lakes has earned him the unofficial title of ‘Mr. Great Lakes’ in recent years. This makes it official.” Davis will report to Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Lisa Jackson and his official title will be “Senior Adviser “.

In his new role, Mr. Davis will be largely accountable for overseeing the new restoration projects that are funded in the 2010 budget. The projects that feed into this effort are wide and varied, but fall into a handful of major categories: partnerships, monitoring, habitat restoration, thwarting invasive species and near-shore health. A sampling of the FY 2010 Great Lakes restoration programs are detailed, below.

The US EPA will coordinate/collaborate with Canada, Federal Agencies, states, industry, tribes and NGOs, and the public to implement critical lake-wide management plans, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and Great Lakes Restoration Initiative programs, projects and activities. This effort is funded at a level of $13 million and will allow for strategic implementation of critical projects that have already been identified by Great Lakes resource managers. The US EPA will also spearhead an effort to coordinate the development of monitoring networks and enhance related state agency and university capabilities with a goal of developing comprehensive monitoring and predictive ecosystem capabilities. This $15.5 million program is specifically aimed at monitoring near-shore water quality and identifying “non-point” sources of pollution. Non-point pollution includes septic system and leech-field emissions, agricultural runoff, and erosion from stream banks and construction sites.

Through the “Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Restoration Act,” the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will award grants to the eight Great Lakes States, Native American Tribes and private interests to implement practical solutions to restore and conserve the region’s fish and wildlife resources. This $8 million effort is the primary federal program dedicated to restoring important fish and wildlife and the habitat on which they depend. In conjunction with the Fish and Wildlife effort, a separate Bureau of Indian Affairs program will award $3 million in grants to approximately 25 tribes and inter-tribal organizations to protect and restore culturally significant native species such as wild rice and the habitats which support these species.

Fishing the Great Lakes

Together the Great Lakes contain the biggest mass amount of freshwater in the world. These lakes lie between the United States and Canada. They are home to many different fish species. Some of the most common inhabitants of the Great Lakes are the various species of Trout, Salmon, Perch, and Bass. However, each lake is known for its own popular fish species.

For over 100 years these lakes have housed the world’s largest freshwater fisheries, containing both native and introduced species. Commercial fishing has declined in the past 100 years, but still relies heavily of the fish of the Great Lakes. On each lake there are fishing charters that go out of the many ports each day.

Lake Michigan:

The waters of Lake Michigan vary according to the area. The northern part of the lake is colder and less developed than the other lakes. Around Chicago and Milwaukee, the lake temperatures are warmer and the area is heavily developed. Lake Michigan offers nearly 100 different species of fish, the most popular being Salmon and Steelhead. Other fish located here are Alewife, Bowfin, Brook Trout, Brown Trout, Bloater, White Bass, Smallmouth Bass, Walleye, Chinook Salmon, Lake Herring, Coho Salmon, Northern Pike, and White and Yellow Perch. Some of the ports and marinas of Lake Michigan are; Port Sheldon, Benton Harbor, Chicago, Winthrop Harbor, Frankfurt, Aradia, and Grand Haven.

Lake Huron:

The second largest of the Great Lakes, Lake Huron is located on the US-Canada border. A popular port on Lake Huron is Port Austin, where the Trout fishing is said to be the best in the world. There are also many other freshwater fish such as; Bass, Whitefish, Salmon, Steelhead, Walleye, Perch and Brown Trout. Lake Huron also has underwater ledges and deep water reefs that are bursting with fish. Ports and marinas located on Lake Huron are; Port Elgin, Port Huron, Port Austin, Port Franks, Grand Bend, and Saginaw Bay.

Lake Superior:

Lake Superior is the largest of all of the Great Lakes, and has the most surface area of any lake in the world. This lake holds enough water to submerge both North and South America under 1 foot of water. It is the coldest and deepest, reaching over 1,300 ft in depth. With most of the land surrounding still left as forest, it is not heavily populated. There are more than 60 different fish species located in Lake Superior. Some of these species include; Brook Trout, Brown Trout, Bloater, Carp, Chinook Salmon, Lake Herring, Coho Salmon, Lake Sturgeon, Lake Trout, Lake Whitefish, Northern Pike, Rainbow Trout, Rainbow Smelt, Ruffe, Round Whitefish, Smallmouth Bass, and White and Yellow Perch. Some of the marinas and ports located on Lake Superior are; Port Wing, Duluth Seaway Port, Twin Ports, St. Louis Bay, and Presque Isle Marina.

Lake Erie:

Lake Erie produces the most fish of all of the Great Lakes, and is the second smallest. The most prized game fish of this lake is the Chinook Salmon, also known as the “King Salmon”, recording up to 47″ and 44lbs. Lake Erie also houses Yellow Perch, Coho Salmon, Brown Trout, Carp, Lake Herring, Lake Trout, Lake Whitefish, Northern Pike, Rainbow Trout, Smallmouth Bass, White Bass, Walleye, and Yellow and White Perch. It is said that there are Jumbo Perch now in Lake Ontario. Some of the popular marinas and ports of Lake Erie are; Port Clinton, Port Stanley, Port of Monroe, and Port of Erie.